Philonica et Neotestamentica

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Studien zu Philo

Otto Kaiser, who in 2014 published an introductory book to Philo of Alexandria, has now another volume on Philo coming from the press:

Otto Kaiser, Studien zu Philo von Alexandrien. Ed. by Markus Witte. Beiheft zur Zeitschrift fur die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 501 (Berlin, De Gruyter, 2016). ca 175 pages.

The volume will contain the following studies:

  • Metapher und Allegorie bei Philo von Alexandrien
  • Philos Kosmologie zwischen Platonismus und Biblizismus
  • Die kosmische Bedeutung des jüdischen Hohepriesters im Denken Philos von Alexandrien
  • Das Gebet bei Philo von Alexandrien
  • Aretē und Pathos bei Philo von Alexandrien
  • Hoffnung und Freude, Kummer und Furcht bei Philo von Alexandrien
  • Gesundheit und Krankheit bei Philo von Alexandrien
  • Vom Tod des Leibes und der Seele sowie der Freiheit als dem höchsten irdischen Gut oder Die Rolle des Todes in Philos Denken


The Studia Philonica Annual 2016 as Festschrift


The Studia Philonica Annual  XXVIII 2016 was published just in time for the SBL Annual Meeting this November, in San Antonio, Texas. As mentioned below this issue was made and presented as a Festschrift to Professor David T. Runia. It was presented and handed over to him at a dinner in San Antonio on Monday the 24th.

Greg E. Sterling was the main editor of this volume and had gathered 15 other scholars in order to present studies in honor of prof. Runia. In addition, the volume contains an annotated bibliography of the Philo studies published in 2013.

The list of contents can be given thus:

Gregory E. Sterling, A Soaring Mind: The Career of
David T. Runia……..…………………………………………………… 3
Gregory E. Sterling, David T. Runia: A Bibliography of His
Publications, 1979–2016…………………………………………………. 15
James R. Royse, The Biblical Quotations in the Coptos Papyrus
of Philo………….…………………………………………………… 49
Abraham Terian, Philonis De visione trium angelorum ad Abraham:
A New Translation of the Mistitled De Deo.………………………………… 77

John Dillon, Philo and the Telos: Some Reflections ……………………….. 111
Carlos Lévy, Continuity and Dissimilarities in Middle Platonism: Philo
and Plutarch about the Epicurean ataraxia ……………………………….. 121
Gregory E. Sterling, When East and West Meet: Eastern Religions
and Western Philosophy in Philo of Alexandria and Plutarch of
Chaeronea ……………………………………………………………. 137
Jaap Mansfeld, Theodoret of Cyrrhus’s Therapy of Greek Diseases
as a Source for the Aëtian Placita ……………………………………… 151

Annewies van den Hoek and John J. Herrmann Jr., Chasing the
Emperor: Philo in the Horti of Rome…………….……………………….. 171
Sarah Pearce, Notes on Philo’s Use of the Terms ἔθνος and λαός..…….. 205

Adam Kamesar, Philo and Ps.-Longinus: A Case of Sublimity in Genesis 4.. 229
Francesca Calabi, “It Would Not Be Good That the Man Should be
Alone”: Philo’s Interpretation of Genesis 2:18 in Legum Allegoriae………….. 239
Peder Borgen, Alternative Aims and Choices in Education:
Analysis of Selected Texts..……………………………………………. 257
Ellen Birnbaum, What in the Name of God Led Philo to Interpret
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as Learning, Nature, and Practice? 273
Albert C. Geljon, Abraham in Egypt: Philo’s Interpretation of
Gen 12:10–20 …..……………………………………………………………….. 297
Torrey Seland, The Expository Use of the Balaam Figure in
Philo’s De vita Mosis.……………………………………………….. 321

Thomas H. Tobin, S.J., Reconfiguring Eschatological Imagery:
The Examples of Philo of Alexandria and Paul of Tarsus …………………… 351
Maren R. Niehoff, Justin’s Timaeus in Light of Philo’s……………………. 375

D. T. Runia, M. Alesso, K. Berthelot, E. Birnbaum, A. C. Geljon,
H. M. Keizer, J. Leonhardt-Balzer, M. R. Niehoff, S. J. K. Pearce,
T. Seland, Philo of Alexandria: An Annotated Bibliography 2013.………… 393
Supplement: A Provisional Bibliography 2014–2016.……………………….. 435

stpha-authors2016For various reasons, not all of the authors were able to be present at the dinner; here is D.T Runia, and the attending authors. From left: James Royse, Torrey Seland, Ellen Birnbaum, Greg. E. Sterling, David T. Runia, Maren Niehoff, and Sarah Pearce. In addition, several others were gathered at the event.



David T. Runia is retiring

davidtrunia David T. Runia, one of the foremost Philo-scholars of our time, (co-)editor of The Studia Philonica Annual, (co-)editor of the Philo of Alexandria – Commentary Series,  convenor of the Philo Bibliography Project, a pillar in the SBL’s Philo Seminar,  and so much more in other fields I am not that familiar with, is retiring from his position as Master of Queen’s College, Queen’s College, The University of Melbourne at the end of this year.

Hence, to celebrate this occasion, and to demonstrate the importance of the role(s) he has played in the recent decades for so many Philo scholars, there was a dinner gathering after the Monday Philo seminar, and a Festschrift was presented to prof. Runia (see another post).

Speeches were held by several colleagues, and we had a wonderful dinner session together. Prof. Runia assured us all that his retirement was not supposed to  be a retirement from Philo studies, but rather the opposite … 🙂

The pictures below are taken at the dinner in the wine cellar of Zinc Bistro and Bar:
Greg. E. Sterling presents the Festschrift to David T. Runia.

Ellen Birnbaum (from left), Sarah Pearce and James Royse were selected to greet prof. Runia at the event, and made great speeches expressing their love and admiration of the retiring professor.

Usually Greg E. Sterling and David T. Runia are co-editors of The Studia Philonica, this time Sterling carried out that work alone, having gathered 15 colleagues as writers for the Festschrift (see the posting above).

Philo, Wisdom and Apocalypticism

The SBL Annual Meeting is already an event of the past, some weeks have, in fact, gone by since I left San Antonio, heading back to Norway.

Nevertheless, as some other duties have kept me away from blog writing, I will post two pages here about two events I enjoyed very much. Hence this is not going to be about everything I enjoyed or experienced, but two selected events.

This post concerns the papers delivered at a seminar session on Wisdom and Apocalypticism, and focusing especially on Philo of Alexandria.


The session was presided over by prof. Matthew Goff, Florida State University, and was one of several on Wisdom and Apocalypticism.The speakers, here seen seated as a panel, were from left, Ellen Birnbaum, Michael Cover, Archie Wright and Greg. E. Sterling. I am not going to present a summary of their lectures. Using the abstracts they handed in beforehand, their topics can be indicated thus:


Ellen Birnbaum, Cambridge, Massachusetts
“Is There Wisdom in Philo’s Rationales for the Book of Genesis? ”

Abstract: “Philo offers at least three different lines of argumentation to address the perplexing question of why the lawgiver Moses begins his legislation with the Book of Genesis, which starts with an account of the creation of the world, presents narratives about the patriarchs of Israel and their predecessors, and contains practically no legal material. These rationales resonate with such sapiential themes as nature as a source of knowledge about the divine, reward of the good and punishment of the bad, intuitive understanding of how to live a virtuous life, and review of virtuous exemplars. In this paper, I will outline Philo’s different rationales, highlight parallel notions in wisdom literature, and consider the significance of these parallels.”


Michael Cover, Marquette University; “Consecrating all the Excellences of Speech” (Mut. 220): Philo on the Right Use of Apocalyptic Tragedy and Gnomic Wisdom

Abstract: “This paper will explore Philo’s reception of contemporary currents in Jewish apocalypticism and wisdom literature by looking closely at two passages in his allegorical treatise, De mutatione nominum. In the first, Mut. 103–120, Philo engages in an extended allegorical interpretation of Exodus 2:15–22, the scene of Moses’ first meeting with Raguel and his seven daughters. According to Alexander Polyhistor, the same scene was dramatized sometime in the second century BCE by the Jewish Tragedian, Ezekiel, and a few fragments of this scene in the drama are extant. Raguel remains a major character in the tragedy, an idealized priest-king and exegete of Moses’ dream-vision in a manner reminiscent of an angelus interpres. Taking as a dual starting point that (1) Ezekiel’s Exagogue mediates or represents some form of apocalyptic Judaism to the Jewish community in Alexandria (VanderKam and Boesenberg [2014]; Orlov [2005]; Van der Horst [1984]; cf. Jacobson [1981]) and (2) that Philo himself had seen the play, appreciated it, and knew it well enough to engage it (Sterling [2014]; Jacobson [1983]), the first and major part of this paper will argue that Philo also undertakes to correct certain (real or potential) misappropriations of its apocalyptic elements. While previous scholarship has looked largely at the comparison of Moses in Ezekiel and Philo’s Vita Mosis (Sterling [2014]; Runia [1988]), this paper will focus in particular on Philo’s allegoresis of the figure of Jethro/Raguel in Mut. 103–120, in which the Alexandrian responds not only to the biblical text, but also to Ezekiel’s tragedy (see Mut. 114, 198; Jacobson [1983]). I will test the hypothesis that Philo wants to revise both the tragedy’s apocalyptic visionary mechanics as well as its potential misuse in Jewish political discourse. In a second passage, Mut. 197, Philo then goes on to offer a satirical portrait of gnomic wisdom of a sort similar to Pseudo-Phocylides. What unites these two criticisms in Philo? Both apocalyptic tragedy and gnomic wisdom have great rhetorical and psychagogic power, which render them either impotent or susceptible to sophistic misuse. While Philo would certainly not banish the poets from Alexandria, he does insist that one must “consecrate” (by way of allegory, dialectic, etc.) these various “excellences of speech” (Mut. 220) for the service of philosophy.”


Archie Wright, Regent University
Questions of Eschatology and other Apocalyptic Themes in Philo’s Demonology .

“Like many of his concepts, Philo presents his eschatology and other apocalyptic themes in relation to the realm of the Platonic world of forms; the “place” in which the material world participates with the other worldly realm. In doing so, we can see Philo’s integrated dualism at work in his cosmology in which his eschatology emerges. The eschatology of Philo begins with his anthropology which is found in Legum Allegoriae III.161 (among others; e.g. Somn. I.34). Here he states that the human is composed of soul and body; the soul belonging to the divine (Gen 2.7; Mut. 223) and the body is “fashioned out of the earth”. It survives on earthly food while the soul is conceived of an ethereal nature, “has on the contrary ethereal and divine food” (knowledge in its various forms). Following a form of the Pythagorean view of the transmigration of the soul, although not completely, upon true death Philo understands the body and soul separate (Leg. Alleg. I.105; II.77). The eschatological end of human existence was the return of a soul to the divine realm or for the “wicked soul” to Tartarus or Hades. Arising out of Philo’s anthropology is what we might call his demonology, although it differs significantly from other early Jewish and Christian demonologies. At times Philo appears to be reacting in a polemical sense to the emergence of demons in the Enochic tradition and other early Jewish literature including such works as, for example, the Book of Watchers, Jubilees, or the Testament of Solomon. Philo argues for a recognition of human responsibility in the existence of evil in the world rather than demonic or evil spirits. This paper will examine Philo’s writings in an effort to compare and contrast the various demonologies circulating in the 1st century CE and their roles in the apocalyptic eschatology of the period.”


Gregory E. Sterling, Yale Divinity School
When Ontology Meets Eschatology.

Abstract: “It is well known that Philo of Alexandria used Hellenistic philosophy as a framework for his thought, especially Middle Platonism. This led him to think primarily in ontological terms. However, in the final treatise of his Exposition of the Law, De praemiis, he offered what appears to be an eschatological vision–although the interpretation is disputed. This paper will attempt to understand Philo’s eschatological vision by exploring other texts that combine ontology with eschatology.”


Philo papers

Papers for the Philo seminars at the coming SBL Annual Meeting in San Antonio, Tx are now coming in, and are posted on my website.

The papers are for the following seminars:
S20-220 Philo of Alexandria: The Knowledge of God in Philo of Alexandria
S20-345 Philo of Alexandria: Reincarnation and Afterlife in Philo and His World
S21-144b Philo of Alexandria: Philo’s de Mutatione Nominum

Papers will be available as they come in, at



Loeb’s Philo in Logos 7!

As mentioned in a posting below, the Loeb Classical Library ‘s edition of Philo’s texts has now been included in the Logos Bible Software 7. At the same time the handbook to Philo, Reading Philo, which was published late in 2014 by Eerdmans, has also been included. These additions, in addition to some other works on Philo already included for some time, (see here, here, and here) make Logos Bible Software even more useful for studying Philo.
The Greek text of the Loeb edition and the English translation are here published in separate volumes (see picture above). All the footnotes of the print edition are, of course, kept in this digital version too, and when the two are associated they scroll together.

Concerning the Reading Philo volume, all the references to Philo’s works included therein, are of course linked to Philo’s texts, whether that be in this Loeb edition, or to the older text version (of Borgen-Fuglseth-Skarsten) and the Yonge’s old translation, which are also available in Logos. I am a little bit surprised, however, that works mentioned in the book, and also available, are not all linked in Reading Philo ( see e.g., no link to the Lexicons or Runia’s Commentary On the Creation).However, it is nice to have the Handbook included!  🙂

Below is a picture of how my desktop in Logos may look when working on Philo. From left: it is possible to highlight texts (by color or underlining, or both: I often have this feature open), then I have the Biblia Hebraica opened, including (below) some lexicons (BDAG, LLS, Louw, BDB); then I have the LXX with some translations below. Then in the fourth column from left is the Loeb edition of Philo (text and translation, including Yonge’s translation). Finally, to the right, in this case, Ryle’s old volumes on the quotations of Philo from the Old Testament.

I wish I had two screens available, one for Logos, and one for my word processor, but I have no room for that on my desk. I do have a 27” screen, however, and that works very well too.



Abstracts updated – manuscripts still to come..

My page for the Philo Seminar at this November SBL Annual Meeting has been updated as far as it concerns the Abstracts of the papers to be presented.

Now we are just waiting for the manuscripts to come…

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