Private Associations and Jewish Communities

In a recent web ‘edition’ of Review of Biblical Literature ( John S. Kloppenborg has a review of a book published in 2019 on ancient associations:

Benedikt Eckhardt, ed.
Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities
Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 191
Leiden: Brill, 2019. Pp. vi + 227. Cloth. $126.00

This volume also contains an article on Philo which especially caught my interest: Kimberley Czajkowski’s “Jewish Associations in Alexandria?” (pp. 76–96), as I myself had an article  published on Philo and the associations as far back as in 1995 (T. Seland, ‘Philo and the clubs and associations of Alexandria,’ in John S. Kloppenborg & Stephen G. Wilson, ed., Voluntary Associations in the Graeco-Roman World. London/New York: Routledge, 110-145). As far as I have been able to observe, not much have been written on Philo and the associations in recent years; hence another study is welcome. Alas, however, I have not been able to see this new article/volume as my access to libraries are somewhat restricted by location. But Kloppenborg evaluates Czajkowskis’s contribution thus:

Kimberley Czajkowski’s “Jewish Associations in Alexandria?” (76–96) makes several critical points for understanding Philo’s polemic against synodoi and thiasoi in Flaccus. Politeuma were, in the first place, fiscal rather than strictly ethnic associations. Hence, the Judean politeumata in Alexandria and elsewhere (and the Phygian and Lycian politeumata) were not co-terminus with the entire Judean (or Phrygian, Lycian) populations of Egyptian cities. With the Roman reduction of Egypt to a province, the politeumata, originally military settlements, lost their public and military features and became essentially private associations. If some Judeans in Alexandria were constituted as a politeuma, as the Letter of Aristeas (§310) claims, these would have similarly been reduced to the status of private associations. It is in this context that Czajkowski discusses Philo’s polemic against thiasoi and synodoi, arguing that Philo was exercised to assert that Judean synodoi were not associations that merely used the pretext of religion to have drunken orgies. They genuinely assembled religionis causa and hence constituted collegia licita that should not
fall under Flaccus’s ban on associations.

It should be mentioned that this volume also contains another article that might touch upon Philo: “Les communautés juives de la Diaspora dans le droit commun des associations du monde gréco-romain” (97–114).

Hopefully, I will be able to get my hands on that article/volume in not a too distant future.


Reading Philo: A Handbook

My Handbook to Philo of Alexandria, published in 2014 is now available for Kindle at for $3.99! A terrible price for me, but a good one for you!  🙂

Have a look at Reading Philo: A Handbook to Philo of Alexandria
Publisher: Eerdmans (Nov., 2014). 362 pp.

“A contemporary of both Jesus and the apostle Paul, Philo was a prolific Jewish theologian, philosopher, and politician — a fascinating, somewhat enigmatic figure — who lived his entire life in Alexandria, Egypt. His many books are important sources for our understanding of ancient Judaism, early Christianity, and the philosophical currents of that time.
Reading Philo is an excellent introductory guide to Philo’s work and significance. The contributors — all well-known experts on Philo of Alexandria — discuss Philo in context, offer methodological considerations (how best to study Philo), and explore Philo’s ongoing relevance and value (why reading him is important). This practical volume will be an indispensable resource for anyone delving into Philo and his world.” (Publishers note).

Bibliographia Borgeniana

This post contains a comprehensive Bibliography of Professor Peder J. Borgen for the years of 1949 to 2018. Borgen was 92 last January, but there might still come an article or two; I know he is working on something! 🙂 

The bibliography is originally written for Norwegian readers, and contains a few Norwegian terms; Red=abbr. for editor;  i=in; s=p =page. Articles in Newspapers are not included.

Articles and books by Peder Borgen 1949-2018 (books are given i bold types)

(1949). Festskrift ved Lillestrøm Metodistmenighets 50-års jubileum 3-9-1949. Utarbeidet av stud. teol. Peder Borgen. Lillestrøm Blads Trykkeri.

Borgen, P. (1956). Eschatology and Heilsgeschichte in Luke-Acts. PhD Dissertation, Drew University, New Jersey, USA. (Arkivutgave; upublisert).

Borgen, P. (1959). The Unity of the Discourse in John 6. Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche 50, 277-278

Borgen, P. (1959a). John and the Synoptics in the Passion Narrative. New Testament Studies 5, 246-259.

Borgen, P. (1960). Brød fra himmel og fra jord. Om Haggada i Palestinsk Midrasj, hos Philo og i Johannesevangeliet. Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift 61, 318-240.

Borgen, P. (1961). At the Age of Twenty in I QSa. Revue de Qumran 3, 267-277

Borgen, P. (1963). Observations on the Midrashic Character of John 6. Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche 54, 232-240.

Borgen, P. (1965). Bread from Heaven: An Exegetical Study of the Concept of Manna in the Gospel of John and the Writings of Philo. Supplements to Novum Testamentum: Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Borgen, P. (1966). Den såkalte Gyldne Regel (Matt. 7:12, Luk. 6:31), dens forekomst i Det nye testamentes omverden og dens innhold i evangelienes kontekst. Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift 67, 129-46.

Borgen, P. (1966a). Von Paulus zu Lukas. Beobachtungen zur Erhellung der Theologie der Lukasschriften. Studia Theologica 20, 140-57.

Borgen, P. (1968). Gods Agent in the Fourth Gospel. I Neusner, J. (Red.). Religions in Antiquity. E. R. Goodenough Memorial Volume (s. 137-148). Leiden: Brill.

Borgen, P. (1969). Eine allgemein-etische Maxime. Temenos 5, 37-53.

Borgen, P. (1969a). From Paul to Luke: Observations Toward Clarification of the Theology of Luke-Acts. Catholic Biblical Quarterly 31, 168-82.

Borgen, P. (1970). Observations on the Targumic Character of the Prologue in John, New Testament Studies 16, 13-20.

Borgen, P. (1970a). Logos var det sanne lys.  Svensk Exegetisk Årsskrift XXXV, 79-95.

Borgen, P. (1970c). Johannes-prologen som eksegese, i P. Mehren, K. Skorgevik, J. Wendel (Red.), Skrift og Skole. Festskrift til O. Hjelde (s. 73-84). Oslo: Land og Kirke.

Borgen, P. (1970d). En tradisjonshistorisk analyse av materialet om Jesu fødsel hos Ignatius, Tidsskrift for Teologi og Kirke 42, 37-44.

Borgen, P. (1971). & Roald Skarsten, Bibelvitenskap, gresk og EDB, Maskinleselig tekst og indeks av Philo fra Alexandrias skrifter, FORSKNINGSNYTT fra Norges allmennvitenskapelige forskningsråd nr. 3, 37-39+50.

Borgen, P. (1971a). Ekumeniske tendenser og problemer i metodismen. Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift 72, 19-42.

Borgen, P. (1972). Johannes Olsonius. Theosophus et Medicus Bergensis. Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift 73, 1-26.

Borgen, P. (1972a). Logos was the true Light, Novum Testamentum 14, 95-110.

Borgen, P. (1973). Philo Judeus: Om dannelsen av verden, I Wyller, E. A. (Red.), Platonisme i Antikk og Middelalder (s. 113-123). Oslo.

Borgen, P. (1974). Tanker i Det nye testamentet om kristen enhet, Lumen 17, 1-19.

Borgen, P. (1976). The Place of the Old Testament in the Formation of New Testament Theology. Response, New Testament Studies 23, 67-75.

Borgen, P. (1976/77). & Skarsten, Roald, Questiones et Solutiones: Some Observations on the Form of Philos Exegesis. Studia Philonica 4, 1-16.

Borgen, P. (1977). Some Jewish Exegetical Traditions as Background for Son of Man Sayings in the Fourth Gospel (Jn 3:13-14 and context. I Jonge, M. De. (Red.). L‘Evangelie de Jean. (s. 243-258). Gembloux.

Borgen, P. (1977a). Der Logos war das wahre Licht. Beitrage zur Deutung des Johannesichen Prologs, in A. Fuchs, Theologie aus dem Norden. Studie zum Neuen Testament in seiner Umwelt (SNTU), Seria A, Band 2, (s. 99-117). Freistadt.

Borgen, P. (1979). The Use of Tradition in John 12,44-50, New Testament Studies 26, 49-66.

Borgen, P. (1979a). Religiøs Pluralisme i nytestamentlig tid. I Borgen, P. (Red.). Religiøs pluralisme i bibelsk tid og i Norge i dag (s. 101-118). Tapir: Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1980). Helbredelsesundere i Det nye testamente, i Borgen, P. (Red.). Mennesket og naturen i kristendom og naturvitenskap (s. 43-64). Tapir: Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1980a). Observations on the Theme Paul and Philo: Paul’s Preaching of Circumcision in Galatia (Gal 5:11) and Debates on Circumcision in Philo, I Pedersen. S.  (Red.).  Die Paulinische Literatur und Theologie (s. 85-102). Århus: Forlaget Aros.

Borgen, P. (1980b). Nomisme og libertinisme i Paulus brev til Galaterne. Tidsskrift for Teologi og Kirke 51, 257-267.

Borgen, P. (1980c). Det nye testamentes omverden. Tekster i oversettelse med innledninger. Utvalgte greske tekster og ordlister. Trondheim: Tapir.

Borgen, P. (1980/81). Fornuftens, erfaringens og den sosiale konteksts rolle i relasjon til Skriftens autoritet, Nordisk ekumenisk årsbok, 35-48.

Borgen, P. (1981). Fra Bibeltolkningens historie og aktuelle debatt, i Borgen, P. (Red.). Bibelen i brennpunktet for tro, historie og litteratur (s. 83-110). Tapir: Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1981a). Biblical Authority and the authenticity of the church in relationship to auxiliary keys such as reason, experience, and social contexts, Epworth Review 8, 72-81.

Borgen, P. (1981b). Kirkebevegelse og foreningsbevegelse. I Øverland, P. (Red.). Norske Frikirker. Framvekst og konfesjonell egenart i brytning med statskirkelighet (s. 9-33). Trondheim: Tapir.

Borgen, P. (1981b). Bread from Heaven: An Exegetical Study of the Concept of Manna in the Gospel of John and the Writings of Philo. 2. Opplag. Supplements to Novum Testamentum. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Borgen, P. (1981c). Synd och nåd, Tro och Liv 3, 29-34.

Borgen, P. (1981d). Miracles of Healing in the New Testament, Studia Theologica 24, 91-106.

Borgen, P. (1981e). Grunnleggelse, motgang og fremgang 1884-1914, I Kirken i Sentrum. Trondheim Metodistmenighet 100 år. 1881- 6. november – 1981 (s. 9-50). Tapir: Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1981f). Odd Hagen. I Kirken i Sentrum. Trondheim Metodistmenighet 100 år. 1881- 6. november – 1981. (s. 184-186). Tapir: Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1982). Dåp i Det nye testament og i konfesjonell debatt. Norsk Forlagsselskap: Oslo.

Borgen, P. (1982a). Jesus og de fattige, Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift 83, 19-32.

Borgen, P. (1982b). Hvilket menneskesyn? Hvilket livssyn? I Borgen, P. (Red.). Hvem er Jeppe? (s. 45-67). Tapir: Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1983). Paul Preaches Circumcision and Pleases Men, I Hooker, M.D. & Wilson S.G. (Red.). Paul and Paulinism. Essays in Honour of C.K. Barrett (s. 37-46). London.

Borgen, P. (1983a).  The early Church and the Hellenistic Synagogue. Studia Theologica 37, 55-78.

Borgen, P. (1983b).  Paul Preaches Circumcision and Pleases Men and other essays on Christian Origins. Trondheim: Tapir. Contains: Borgen 1980a; 1983; 1969a; 1983c; 1983a; 1966 (eng. transl.); 1981e; 1974 (eng. transl.); 1970d (eng. transl.); 1961; 1983c; 1983d og 1976/77.

Borgen, P. (1983c). Philo, Luke and Geography, I Borgen, P. (1983b), s. 59-71.

Borgen, P. (1983d). Aristobulus – A Jewish exegete from Alexandria. I Borgen, P. (1983b), s. 179-190.

Borgen, P. (1983e). Logos was the true Light, and other essays on The Gospel of John. Trondheim: Tapir.  Contains: Borgen 1959a; 1959; 1963; 1983f; 1968; 1970; 1972a; 1983g; 1976; 1979; 1977, + two previously unpublished works:

Borgen, P. (1983f). Bread from Heaven. Aspects of Debates on Expository Method and Form. I: Borgen, P. (1983e), s. 32-46.

Borgen, P. (1983g). Johns Use of the Old Testament and the Problem of Sources and Traditions. I. Borgen, P. (1983e), s. 81-91.

Borgen, P. (1984). Etterutdanning av lærere i Universitetets regi. Prismet 2-3, 86-90.

Borgen, P. (1984a). Filo, Diasporajøde Fra Aleksandria. Kvalbein, H. (Red.), Blant skriftlærde og fariseere: Jødedommen i oldtiden (s. 143-56). Oslo: Verbum.

Borgen, P. (1984b). Philo of Alexandria,” Jonge, M. de & Safrai, S. (Red.). Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum II,2 (s. 233-82). Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Borgen, P. (1984c). Philo of Alexandria. A Critical and Synthetical Survey of Research Since World War II. I Haase, W. (Red.). Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II 21,1: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung. 2, Principat. Religion: (Hellenistisches Judentum in römischer Zeit: Philon und Josephus). (s. 98-154). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Borgen, P. (1985). Bibel – kultur – identitet, i O. G. Winsnes (red.). Religionskunnskap og allmennutdannelse (s. 79-13). Trondheim: Tapir,

Borgen, P. (Red.). (1985a).  The Many and the One. Essays on Religion in the Graeco-Roman World Presented to H. Ludin Jansen. Trondheim: Tapir.

Borgen, P. (1985b). The Cross-National Church for Jews and Greeks. Observations on Paul’s Letter to the Galatians. I Borgen 1985a, s. 225-248.

Borgen, P. (1986/87). Nattverdtradisjonen i 1. Kor. 10 og 11 som evangelietradisjon. Svensk Exegetisk årsbok 51-52, 32-9.

Borgen, P. (1986). Gods Agent in the Fourth Gospel, in J. Ashton (ed.), Interpretation of John. Issues in Religion and Theology 9 (s. 67-78). Philadelphia and London, 1986.

Borgen, P. (1987).  Creation, Logos and the Son: Observations on John 1:1-18 and 5:17-18. Ex Audite III, 88-97.

Borgen, P. (1987a). Kristne og staten i Det nye testamente, i P. Borgen et al. (red.), Teologi på tidens torg. Festskrift til Peter Wilhelm Bøckman (s. 33-41).Tapir: Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1987b). Bibelske tema i litteratur, film og teater. I Bøckman P.W. (Red.). Bibelske tema i litteratur, film og teater (s. 9-22). Tapir: Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1987c). John and the Synoptics: Can Paul offer help? I Hawthorne, G.W. (Red.). Tradition and Interpretation in the New Testament. Essays in honor of E. Earle Ellis for his 60th Birthday (s. 80-94). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

Borgen, P. (1987d). The Church as the Body of Christ, Doxology 4, 7-16.

Borgen, P. (1987e). Philo, John and Paul. New Perspectives on Judaism and Early Christianity. Brown Judaic Studies. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press. “These studies are either reproductions, elaborations or modifications of essays which have been previously published”: se 1970; 1984b; 1984c; 1980a; 1977; 1972a; 1963; 1983f; 1983a; 1980a; 1985a; og 1983c.

Borgen, P., Hognestad, O., Karlsaune, E., Rian D., & Øverland, P. (Red.). (1987f). Teologi på tidens torg. Festskrift til Peter Wilhelm Bøckman. Trondheim: Tapir.

Borgen, P. (1988). Utredning om behovet for forskning innenfor området kulturarv-religionsundervisning-skole, UniTRel studieserie 8: Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1988a). Catalogue of Vices, The Apostolic Decree, and the Jerusalem Meeting, I Neusner, J., Borgen, P., Frerichs, E.S., & Horsley. R. (Red.), The Social World of Formative Christianity and Judaism. Essays in Tribute to Howard Clark Kee (126-141). Philadelphia: Fortress.

Borgen, P. (1989a). Undervisning i kristendom, andre religioner og livssyn. I Vikan, A. & Aakervik, Aa. O. (Red.). Skolen mot år 2000. (s. 53-69). Namsos.

Borgen, P. (1989b). En tysk buddhist tolker kristendommen og dens historie. I Bøckman, P.W. (Red.). Kristendommen og religionene (s. 45-64). Tapir: Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1990). John and the Synoptics. I Dungan, D. L. (Red.).  The Interrelations of the Gospels. Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium XCV (s. 408-37). Leuven: Leuven University Press.

Borgen, P. (1990a). John and the Synoptics: A Reply. I Dungan, D. L. (Red.). The Interrelations of the Gospels. Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium XCV. (s. 451-8). Leuven: Leuven University Press.

Borgen, P. (1991). The Sabbath Controversy in John 5:1-18 and Analogous Controversy Reflected in Philos Writings. The Studia Philonica Annual 3, 209-21.

Borgen, P. (1991a). Miljø, skapelse og frelse. Nåtid og fremtid, I Borgen, P. (Red.) Miljøkrise og verdivalg: miljøkrisen i kristent perspektiv og som utfordring i samfunn og skole. (s. 35-56). Trondheim: Tapir.

Borgen, P. (1991b). Metodistkirken, en tverrnasjonal kirke i Norge og i andre land, I Øverland, P. (Red.). Norges kristne kirkesamfunn. (s. 28-38). Trondheim: Tapir.

Borgen, P. (1992).  The Independence of the Gospel of John. Some Observations. I  Segbroeeck, F. v., Tuckett, C., Belle, G.  &  Verheyden, J. (Red.). The Four Gospels 1992. Festschrift Frans Neirynck. Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium (s. 1815-33). Leiden: Brill.

Borgen, P. (1992a). Filo fra Alexandria. Jødisk filosof og Jesu samtidige, Midtøsten Forum. Tidsskrift om Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika nr 1, feb.,  40-46.

Borgen, P. (1992b). Judaism in Egypt. I Freedman, D. N. (Red.). The Anchor Bible Dictionary Vol 3:H-J. New York: Doubleday, s. 1061-72.

Borgen, P. (1992c). There Shall Come Forth a Man Reflections on Messianic Ideas in Philo. J. H. Charlesworth (Red.), The Messiah. (s. 341-61). Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg & Fortress.

Borgen, P. (1992d). Philo of Alexandria. I Freedman, D.N. (Red.). The Anchor Bible Dictionary Vol 5 O-Sh. (s. 333-342). New York: Doubleday.

Borgen, P. (1992e). Philo and the Jews in Alexandria, I Bilde, P. Engberg-Pedersen,T.,  Hannestad, L. & Zahle, J. (Red.). Etnicity in Hellenistic Egypt (s. 122-138). Århus: Aarhus University Press.

Borgen, P. (1992f). Overcoming Fears. I Charlesworth, J. H. & Blisard, F. X. & Gorham, J.L. (Red.). Overcoming Fears Between Jews and Christians (s. 109-118). New York.

Borgen, P. (1992g). Et visst håp for framtiden. I Tofte, R. (Red.). Snart enige? Glimt fra samtaler mellom forskjellige kirkesamfunn (s. 78-79). Oslo: Verbum.

Borgen, P. (1993).  Metodistkirken. I Borgen, P. & Haraldsø, B. (Red.). Kristne kirker og trossamfunn.  (s. 231-244). Trondheim: Tapir.

Borgen, P. (1993a) & Bloch-Hoell, N.  Den reformerte kirke, I Borgen, P. & Haraldsø, B. (Red.). Kristne kirker og trossamfunn.  (s. 229-242). Trondheim: Tapir.

Borgen, P. (1993b).  Heavenly Ascent in Philo: An Examination of Selected Passages. I Charlesworth, J. H. & Evans, C.A. (Red.). The Pseudepigrapha and Early Biblical Interpretation. Journal for the Study of Pseudepigrapha Supplement Series. (s. 246-68). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

Borgen, P. (1993c). John 6: Tradition, Interpretation and Composition. I De Boer, M.C. (Red.). From Jesus to John: Essays on Jesus and New Testament Christology in Honour of Marinus de Jonge. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 84  (s. 268-91). Sheffield: JSOT Press.

Borgen, P. (1993d).  Polemic in the Book of Revelation. I Evans, C.A. & Hagner, D. A. Anti-Semitism and Early Christianity: Issues of Polemic and Faith (s. 199-211). Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Borgen, P. (1993e). Georg Wolff (1736-1828): Handelsmann, metodist og norsk-dansk konsul i fred og krig. I Utne, B.S. & Aarek, H.E. (Red.), «Dette Ukrudt fra Engellands sectrige og geile jordbund,» Rapport fra forskningsseminar om: «Den rolle kristne dissenterbevegelser – spesielt kvekerne – spilte i norsk kulturutvikling på 1800-tallet.». (s. 86-101). Stavanger.

Borgen, P. (1994).  Den Dansk-Norske Konsul Georg Wolff (1736-1828). Religion, Handel og Politikk i Dansk-Norsk og Engelsk miljø i London. I Andersen, H. W., Dahl, S., Haarstad, K., & Simensen, J. (Red.), Clios Tro Tjener. Festskrift til Per Fuglum. Skriftserie fra Historisk Institutt 1 (s.  45-75). Trondheim: Historisk Institutt: Universitetet i Trondheim.

Borgen, P. (1994a). Yes, No, How Far?: The Participation of Jews and Christians in Pagan Cults. T. Engberg-Pedersen (Red.). Paul in His Hellenistic Context (s. 30-59). Edinburgh: T.&T. Clark.

Borgen, P. (1994b). Jesus Christ, the Reception of the Spirit, and a Cross-National Community. I Green, J. B. & Turner, M. (Red.). Jesus of Nazareth: Lord and Christ: Essays on the Historical Jesus and New Testament Christology (s. 220-35). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

Borgen, P. (1994c). Man’s Sovereignty Over Animals and Nature According to Philo of Alexandria. I Fornberg, T. & Hellholm, D. (Red.). Texts and Contexts: Biblical Texts in Their Textual and Situational Contexts. Essays in Honor of Lars Hartman (s. 361-89). Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.

Borgen, P. (1994d). Militant proselytisme og misjon. Hvalvik, R. and Kvalbein, H. (Red.), Ad Acta: Studier til Apostlenes Gjerninger og urkristendommens historie (s. 9-26). Oslo: Verbum.

Borgen, P. (1994e). Misjon i nytestamentlig tid og i Metodistkirken i Europa i dag. Teologisk Forum VIII, 27-41.

Borgen, P. (1995). Some Hebrew and Pagan Features in Philo’s and Paul’s Interpretation of Hagar and Ishmael. I Borgen, P. & Giversen, S. (1995a). (Red.). The New Testament and Hellenistic Judaism (s. 151-64). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Borgen, P. & S. Giversen. (Red.), (1995a). The New Testament and Hellenistic Judaism. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Borgen, P. (1996). Religionsfrihet og statskirke. BAPTIST. Tidsskrift for baptistisk historie, teologi og praksis nr. 2, 7-26.

Borgen, P. (1996a). In Accordance with the Scriptures. I Barclay, J. & Sweet, J. (Red.), Early Christian Thought in Its Jewish Context (s. 193-206). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Borgen, P. (1996b). The Gospel of John and Hellenism: Some Observations I Culpepper, R. & Black, C. (Red.). Exploring the Gospel of John. In Honor of D. Moody Smith (s. 98-123). Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.

Borgen, P. (1996c). Moses, Jesus, and the Roman Emperor. Observations in Philo’s Writings and the Revelation of John. Novum Testamentum 38, 145-59.

Borgen, P. (1996d). Philo of Alexandria – A Systematic Philosopher or an Eclectic Editor? An Examination of His Exposition of the Laws of Moses. Symbolae Osloenses 71, 15-34.

Borgen, P. (1996e). Philantropia in Philo’s Writings. Some Observations. I  Elder, L. B., Barr, D. L., & Malbon, E. S. (Red.). Biblical and Humane. Festschrift for John Priest (s. 173-88). Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press.

Borgen, P. (1996f). Emperor Worship and Persecution in Philo’s In Flaccum and De Legatione ad Gaium and Revelation of John. I Cancik, H., Lichtenberger, H., & Shäfer, P. (Red.). Geschichte – Tradition – Religion. Festschrift für Martin Hengel zum 70. Geburtstag. Bnd III. Frühes Christentum (s. 493-509). Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck.

Borgen, P. (1996g). Early Christianity and Hellenistic Judaism. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. Inneholder: 1994a; 1992b; 1991; 1990; 1990a; 1992; 1993c; 1988a; 1994b; 1993d; 1996h; 1996i; 1996j.

Borgen, P. (1996h). Militant and Peaceful Proselytism and Christian Mission. I Borgen, P. (1996g). s. 45-69.

Borgen, P. (1996i). Illegitimate Invasion and Proper Ascent. I: Borgen, P. (1996g). s. 293-307.

Borgen, P. (1996j). Autobiographical Ascent Reports: Philo and John the Seer, I: Borgen, P. (1996g). s. 309-320.

Borgen, P. (1997). Philo of Alexandria, An Exegete for His Time (Supplements to Novum Testamentum 86; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1997).

Borgen, P. (1997a). Philo of Alexandria: Reviewing and Rewriting Biblical Material. Studia Philonica 9, 37-53.

Borgen, P. (1997b). Samenes første Landsmøte 6-9 Februar 1917. Grunnlaget for Samefolkets dag 6. Februar. Historisk oversikt. Dokumentasjon. Kommentar. Trondheim: Tapir.

Borgen, P. (1998). The Crossing of the Red Sea as Interpreted by Philo. Biblical Event – Liturgical Model – Cultural Application. I Hills, J.V. (Red.). Common Life in the Early Church. Essays Honoring Graydon F. Snyder (s. 77-90). Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International.

Borgen, P., Robbins V. K., & Gowler D. B. (Red.). (1998a). Recruitment, Conquest, and Conflict. Strategies in Judaism, Early Christianity, and the Greco-Roman World (Emory Studies in Early Christianity. Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press.

Borgen, P. (1998b). Proselytes, Conquest and Mission. I Borgen, P., Robbins V. K., & Gowler D. B. (Red.). (1998a). Recruitment, Conquest, and Conflict. Strategies in Judaism, Early Christianity, and the Greco-Roman World. Emory Studies in Early Christianity (s. 57-77). Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press.

Borgen, P. (1998c). George Scott – Wesleyan Missionary to Sweden: Aspects of His Preaching.  I Sykes, R., (red.). Beyond the Boundaries. Preaching in the Wesleyan Tradition. (s. 116-135). Oxford.

Borgen, P. (1999). Two Philonic Prayers and Their Contexts: An Analysis of Who is the Heir of Divine Things (Her.) 24-29 and Against Flaccus (Flac.) 170-175. New Testament Studies 45, 291-309.

Borgen, P. Kåre Fuglseth and Roald Skarsten (Red.). (2000). The Philo Index: A Complete Greek Word Index to the Writings of Philo of Alexandria. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

Borgen, P. (2000a). “Openly Portrayed as Crucified: Some Observations on Gal 3:1-14. I Horrell, D. G. & Tuckett, C. M. (Red.). Christology, Controversy and Community. New Testament Essays in Honour of David R. Catchpole (s. 345-53). E.J. Brill: Leiden.

Borgen, P. (2000b). Philo’s Against Flaccus as Interpreted History, I Illman, K.-J., Ahlback, T., Back, S.-O. & Nurmela, R. (Red.). A Bouquet of Wisdom. Essays in Honour of Karl-Gustav Sandelin (s. 41-57). Åbo: Åbo Akademi.

Borgen, P. (2000c). Jøder og kristne. Følelse av slektskap-opplevelse av overgrep-forståelse av skyld-dialogens vei, I Jørgensen, Th., Rian D., & Winsnes, O. G. (Red.), Kropp og sjel. Festskrift til professor Olav Hognestad (s. 195-201). Trondheim: Tapir.

Borgen, P. (2001). Application of and Commitment to the Laws of Moses. Observations on Philos Treatise On the Embassy to Gaius. I  Runia, D.T. & Sterling, G. E. (Red.), In the Spirit of Faith: Studies in Philo and Early Christianity in Honor of David Hay. Studia Philonica Annual/ Studies in Hellenistic Judaism Volume XIII. (s. 86-101). Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press.

Borgen, P. (2001a). Greek Encyclical Education, Philosophy and the Synagogue. Observations from Philo of Alexandrias Writings. I Matsson, O. et al. (Red.). Libens Merito. Festskrift til Stig Strømholm på sjuttioårsdagen 16 sept. 2001. Acta academiæ Regiæ Scientiarum Upsaliensis. Kungl. Vetenskapssamhällets Uppsala Handlingar 21 (s. 61-71). Uppsala.

Borgen, P. (2001b). George Wolff (1736-1828): Norwegian-born Merchant, Consul, Benevolent Methodist Layman, Close Friend of John Wesley, Methodist History 40, 17-28.

Borgen, P. (2001c). A Necessary and Important Step. I Getui, M.N., Maluleke, T., & Ukpong. (Red.). (2001). Interpreting the New Testament in Africa. (s. 1-4). Nairobi, Kenya: Acton Publishers.

Borgen, P. (2002). Avtalen ‘Nådens felleskap’ mellom Metodistkirken og Den norske kirke. Tidsskrift for Teologi og Kirke 73, 185–98.

Borgen, P. (2003). The Gospel of John and Philo of Alexandria. I Charlesworth, J.H. (Red.).  Light in a Spotless Mirror. Reflections on Wisdom Traditions in Judaism and Early Christianity. London: Continuum. (s. 77–91).

Borgen, P. (2003a). Philo of Alexandria as Exegete. I Hauser, A.J., & Watson, D.F. (Red.). A History of Biblical Interpretation Vol 1: The Ancient Period (s. 114–43). Grand Rapids, Mi: Eerdmans.

Borgen, P. (2004). The Contrite Wrongdoer – Condemned or Set Free by the Spirit? Romans 7:7–8:4. I Stanton, G.N., Longenecker, B.W., & Barton, S.C. (Red.). The Holy Spirit and Christian Origins. Essays in Honor of James D. G. Dunn (s. 181-92). Grand Rapids, Mi: Eerdmans.

Borgen, P. (2004a). Ute-økumenikk og hjemme-økumenikk. Hendelser og erfaringer. I Sandnes, K.O., Hegstad, H., Heiene, G., & Thorbjørnsen, S. (Red.), Etikk, tro og pluralisme. Festskrift til Lars Østnor (s. 269-280). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Borgen, P. (2004b). Avhandlingen Das Volk Gottes. Dens økumeniske perspektiv, historiske kontekst og innflytelse. Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift 105, 12-20.

Borgen, P. (2005). Der Methodismus und die Anfänge der Pfingstbewegung in Norwegen: eine auf Thomas Ball Barratt konzentrierte Studie mit einem kurzen Hinweis auf Erik Andersen Nordquelle. I Streiff P.Ph. (Red.). Der europäische Methodismus um die Wende vom 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. EmK Geschichte – Monografien, Band 52, Medienwerk der Evangelisch-methodistischen Kirche (s. 237-257). Freiburg,

Borgen, P. (2006). Some Crime-and-Punishment Reports. I Neusner, J., Avery-Peck, A.J., Laato, A., Nurmela, R. & Sandelin, K.-G. (Red.). Ancient Israel, Judaism, and Christianity in Contemporary Perspective. Essays in Memory of Karl-Johan Illman. Studies in Judaism (s. 67–80). Lanham: University Press of America.

Borgen, P. (2006a). Crucified for His Own Sins – Crucified for Our Sins: Observations on a Pauline Perspective. I Fotopoulos, J. (Red.). The New Testament and Early Christian Literature in Greco-Roman Context. Supplements to Novum Testamentum 122 (s.17–35). Leiden: Brill.

Borgen, P. (2007). The Scriptures and the Words and Works of Jesus. I Thatcher, T. (Red.). What We Have Heard from the Beginning. The Past, Present, and Future of Johaninne Studies (s. 39-58). Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press.

Borgen, P. (2009a). Ole Peter Petersen, Norsk biografisk leksikon. Internet edition:

Borgen, P. (2009b). Odd Hagen, Norsk biografisk leksikon. Internet edition:

Borgen, P. (2009c). Vei utenfor Allfarvei. Studier i skjæringspunktet mellom kirkehistorie, personalhistorie og samfunnshistorieTransactions of The Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters, 1, Trondheim. Contains: 2009d; 1972 (norsk oversett.); 2001b (norsk oversett.); 2009e; 2005; 2004b (eng. oversett.), 2004a, samt 2009d-e.

Borgen, P. (2009d). Vei utenfor allfarvei -oversikt-hovedtemaer. I Borgen, 2009c, s. 7-20.

Borgen, P. (2009e). Ole Peter Petersen fra Glemmen (1822-1901). I Borgen, 2009c, s.87-128.

Borgen, P. (2010). The Scriptures and the Words and Works of Jesus, I Thatcher, T. (Red.), What we have heard from the Beginning. The Past, Present, and Future of Johannine Studies (s. 39-59). Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press.

Borgen, P. (2013). On the Migration of Moses. I Feldman, L.H., et al. (Red.). Outside the Bible I (s. 951-58). Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society.

Borgen, P. (2014) The Gospel of John: More Light from Philo, Paul and Archaeology. The Scriptures, Tradition, Exposition, Settings, Meaning. Supplements to Novum Testamentum 154. Leiden-Boston: Brill. Comprises: 2010; 2014a;2014a; 2003, 2014b; 1996b; 1959a; 1990; 1992; 1968; 1991; 2014c; 2014d; 2014e; 2014f, og 2014g, and 2014a-g.

Borgen, P. (2014a) Debates on Expository Method and Form. I Borgen, P. 2014, s. 29-39.

Borgen, P. (2014b). Gospel traditions in Paul and John: Methods and Structures. John and the Synoptics. I Borgen, P. 2014, s. 67-77.

Borgen, P. (2014c). Observations on God’s agent and agency in John’s gospel Chapters 5-10: Agency and the Quest for the Historical Jesus. I Borgen, P. 2014, s. 193-218.

Borgen, P. (2014d) John the Witness and the Prologue: John 1:1-34(37), I Borgen, P. (2014), s. 219-238.

Borgen, P. (2014e), Can Philo’s In Flaccum and Legatio ad Gaium be of Help? I Borgen, P. (2014), s. 241-260.

Borgen, P. (2014f), The Appearance to Thomas: Not a blasphemous claim, but the Truth, I Borgen, P. (2014), s. 261-274.

Borgen, P. (2014g), Summary: John, Archaeology, Philo, Paul, Other Jewish sources. John’s independence of the Synoptics. Where my journey of research has led, I Borgen, P. (2014), s. 275-294.

Borgen, P. (2014h) Philo – An Interpreter of the Laws of Moses. I Seland, T., (2014). (Red.). Reading Philo. A Handbook to Philo of Alexandria (s. 75-101). Grand Rapids, Mi.: Eerdmans.

Borgen, P. (2016). Alternative Aims and Choices in Education: Analysis of Selected Texts. I Runia, D.T. & Sterling, G.E. (Red.). The Studia Philonica Annual XXVIII 2016/ Studies in Hellenistic Judaism (s. 257-271). Atlanta, Ga: SBL Press.

Borgen, P. (2017). Bread from Heaven. An Exegetical Study of the Concept of Manna in the Gospel of John and the Writings of Philo. The Johannine Monograph Series. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock, 2017. Reprint of the 1965/1981 editions, with a Foreword by Paul. N. Andersson (ix-xxxiv), and a new Preface by P. Borgen.

Borgen, P. (2018). Perspectives for Mission: Galatians 3:1-14 in Context. I Aune, D.E & Hvalvik, R. (Red.), The Church and Its Mission in the New Testament and Early Christianity. Essays in Memory of Hans Kvalbein. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 404 (s. 181-192) Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

“Writing to the Romans: Philo of Alexandria and Paul”

On Monday, February 10, 2020 – 5:30pm to 6:30pm, at Yale Divinity School (409 Prospect Street, New HavenCT) Maren R. Niehoff will give a lecture on

“Writing to the Romans: Philo of Alexandria and Paul.”

I hope this lecture will result in an article too, as many more than those able to attend the lecture will probably be interested in her views concerning Paul and Philo and their relations with Rome.

Maren R. Niehoff is Max Cooper Professor of Jewish Thought at Hebrew University, Israel, and now also a Martin Hengel Fellow at Tübingen University. Her two latest books are Bible Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria (Cambridge 2011, paperback 2014), and Philo of Alexandria: An Intellectual Biography (Yale, 2018).

Philo and Greek Myth

Brill is publishing a new book on Philo of Alexandria, this late fall,  edited by Francesca Alesse:

Philo of Alexandria and Greek Myth:Narratives, Allegories, and Arguments
Series: Studies of Philo of Alexandria Vol 10
Brill (to be published October 2019). 
E-Book List price EUR €116.00 USD$140.00

“In Philo of Alexandria and Greek Myth: Narratives, Allegories, and Arguments, a fresh and more complete image of Philo of Alexandria as a careful reader, interpreter, and critic of Greek literature is offered. Greek mythology plays a significant role in Philo of Alexandria’s exegetical oeuvre. Philo explicitly adopts or subtly evokes narratives, episodes, and figures from Greek mythology as symbols whose didactic function we need to unravel, exactly as the hidden teaching of Moses’ narration has to be revealed by interpreters of Bible. By analyzing specific mythologems and narrative cycles, the contributions to this volume pave the way to a better understanding of Philo’s different attitudes towards literary and philosophical mythology.”

Preface by Francesca Alesse
Part 1: Philo of Alexandria and Myth-Telling
1 Philo’s Refashioning of Greek Myth
Erich S. Gruen
2 Philo’s Reception of Greek Mythology
Geert Roskam
3 Histoires grecques, récits bibliques. la lecture des mythes chez Philon d’Alexandrie
Francesca Calabi
4 Polytheos doxa and Mythologein: Philo of Alexandria as a “Historian of Religions”
Giulia Sfameni Gasparro
5 Philo’s Struggle with Jewish Myth
René Bloch

Part 2: Gods, Heroes, and some Monsters
6 The God of the Philosophers, and the God of Israel
Erkki Koskenniemi
7 Philo of Alexandria on Greek Heroes
Pura Nieto Hernández
8 Heracles and Philo of Alexandria: The Son of Zeus between Torah and Philosophy, Empire and Stage
Courtney J. P. Friesen
9 The Greek Character of Philo’s Biblical Giants: A Reading of QG 2.82
Benjamin Garstad
10 Homer in Philo: Scylla’s Myth in Philonic Philosophical Context
Marta Alesso
11 Les « plaies » d’Empédocle et la mythologie infernale chez Philon d’Alexandrie
Lucia Saudelli

New book on Philo


Erkki Koskenniemi
Greek Writers and Philosophers in Philo and Josephus. A Study of Their Secular Education and Educational Ideals
(Studies in Philo of Alexandria, Volume 9) Leiden; Brill, 2019.

The Finnish scholar Erkki Koskenniemi is having a new book on Philo (and Josephus) published this year.

The contents are given thus: Preface
1 Introduction  1  The Task of the Study  2  A Brief History of the Research  3  The Outline of Graeco-Roman Education  4  A More Precise Definition of the Task
2 Philo: Offspring from Sarah and Hagar  1  Introduction  2  Philo and Greek Writers  3  Philo’s Educational Ideals and His Own Witness  4  Jews and the Secular Education in Alexandria  5 Conclusion
3 Josephus: It Is Difficult to Transplant an Old Tree  1  Introduction  2  Josephus and Greek Writers 3  Greek Language and Classical Education in Jerusalem  4  Josephus’ Own Witness and the Quality of His Greek  5  Conclusion

I think it will be interesting to see what he writes about ‘Education,’ his contribution in Reading Philo, on ‘Philo and Classical Education’ has been very well received in several reviews of that book. I presume he will elaborate on this article in his new book.


Studia Philonica 2018

The 2018 issue of The Studia Philonica Annual XXX 2018 arrived in my snail mailbox just as the SBL Annual Meeting was going on in Denver.

As usual – it contains a lot of relevant material for those interested in Philo of Alexandria and Hellenistic Judaism.

In this volume, you will find the following articles:

  • Royse, James R.  “Fragments of Philo of Alexandria Preserved in Pseudo-Eustathius.” pp.   1–14.
  • Cover, Michael B.  “A New Fragment of Philo’s Quaestiones in Exodum in Origen’s Newly Discovered Homilies on the Psalms? A Preliminary Note.” pp. 15–29.
  • Sterling, Gregory E.  “Philo of Alexandria’s Life of Moses: An Introduction to the Exposition of the Law.” pp. 31–45.
  • Adams, Sean A. “Movement and Travel in Pilo’s Migration of Abraham: The Adaptation of Genesis and the Introduction of Metaphor.” pp. 47–70.
  • Hartog, P.B. “Space and Travel in Philo’s Legatio Ad Gaium.” pp. 71–92.
  • Appelbaum, Alan.  “A Fresh Look at Philo’s Family.” pp. 93–113.

In addition, of course, there also is the usual Bibliographic Section, pp. 115-181, and the Book Review Section, pp. 183-217. And finally some News and Notes, and Notes on contributors.

This issue represents the 18th time I have contributed to the Bibliographic Section, and I have asked the editors to find some successor. I am always looking forward to the publication of this annual, and I will continue to do so. No scholar interested in Philo should go without this.

Greek Writers and Philosophers

A new book is about to be published, written by Erkki Koskenniemi:

Greek Writers and Philosophers in Philo and Josephus
A Study of Their Secular Education and Educational Ideals
Series: Studies in Philo of Alexandria, Volume: 9
Leiden; Brill, 2018.

The advertisement has just ‘popped up’ on the Brill site, and it runs thus:
“In Greek Writers and Philosophers in Philo and Josephus Erkki Koskenniemi investigates how two Jewish writers, Philo and Josephus, quoted, mentioned and referred to Greek writers and philosophers. He asks what this tells us about their Greek education, their contacts with Classical culture in general, and about the societies in which Philo and Josephus lived. Although Philo in Alexandria and Josephus in Jerusalem both had the possibility to acquire a thorough knowledge of Greek language and culture, they show very different attitudes. Philo, who was probably educated in the gymnasium, often and enthusiastically refers to Greek poets and philosophers. Josephus on the other hand rarely quotes from their works, giving evidence of a more traditionalistic tendencies among Jewish nobility in Jerusalem.”

Price; as expected; (too) expensive: EUR €138.00USD $166.00, but tell your institution’s library to get it!

A mind in training

Elisa Uusimaki (University of Helsinki, Finland), has published an article dealing with the issue of “How does Philo of Alexandria depict the formation of a wise person?”

Elisa Uusmaki,’A Mind in Training: Philo of Alexandria on Jacob’s Spiritual Exercises,’ Journal for the Study of Pseudepigrapha 27.4 (2018): 265-288.

Its abstract runs like this:

“How does Philo of Alexandria depict the formation of a wise person? This article pays attention to the centrality of spiritual training in Graeco-Roman philosophy, and argues that Philo likewise regards the process of seeking wisdom as entailing mental practice. The analysis focuses on two passages of Quis rerum divinarum heres sit and Legum allegoriarum where Philo attributes lists of spiritual exercises to the figure of Jacob. As such, these accounts illustrate how Philo makes use of scriptural interpretation as he imagines the execution of a life dedicated to wisdom. The listed exercises are largely familiar from Graeco-Roman philosophical traditions, yet they coexist with and contribute to the performance of Philo’s ancestral tradition. This melange of cultural elements suggests that Philo discusses Jacob’ s inner cultivation in order to enable his audience to grasp (one prospect of) how to lead a Jewish philosophical life in the Roman Alexandria.”

In order to wet your appetite even more, I quote this from her first paragraph (sorry, the Greek did not come through):

How did Philo of Alexandria’ imagine the practical performance of philosophical life, that is, the mental training considered to advance one’s search for wisdom (sofia)? In this article, I propose one answer to the question by demonstrating how Philo associates two narratives on Jacob, the eponymous and exemplary patriarch, with the practice (askesis) of diverse spiritual exercises (Her. 252-53; Leg. 3.18-19). In the context of Graeco-Roman philosophy, such exercises were undertaken to shape the mind and attitude of the practising subject who pursued wisdom. Before the textual analysis, further elaboration on the ancient conception of philosophy and Philo’s notion of the cultivation of a person towards being a philosopher (filosofos), or even a sage (sofos) who possesses virtue (arete), is needed.

Philo and the Ancient Theater

Philo of Alexandria has several comments on the ancient theater of his time, and a few studies have been published dealing with his views and attitudes (see e.g., Koskenniemi; now an issue of the Journal ‘Journal of Ancient Judaism‘ is devoted to the theme Jews and Drama, and included here are also a couple of articles o Philo and the theater:

  • Jeff Jay, ‘Spectacle, Stage-Craft, and the Tragic in Philo’s In Flaccum: A Literary-Historical Analysis,’ 222-240,
  • Courtney J. P. Friesen, ‘Virtue and Vice on the Stage: Theatrical Ambivalences in Philo of Alexandria,’ 241-256.

I have not seen this issue yet, and can not provide any further information, its website, alas, does not present any abstracts either.