Connor Purcell Wood, ‘Epicurean Critical Praxis and Philonian Metaphor in Johannine Parrhêsia,’ Journal for the Study of the New Testament 45.3 (2023) 330–347.
Abstract: “The Johannine epistles contain two concepts of parrhêsia. One, which they call by name, is a boldness before God, foreign to Gentile philosophy but explored by Jewish writers. The second, which is implicit, reflects the Hellenistic philosophical traditions of frank criticism and rebuke. Johannine parrhêsia—public and oriented toward group cohesion—most closely matches that of Epicureans in its methods and goals. However, Johannine metaphorical language, though obscure, suggests Jewish roots in its preconditions for a critical community.”